tiRNA and tRF Microarray Service

As a leading service provider in the field of microarrays, CD Genomics is committed to the design and development of various effective biological microarrays for scientific research and non-clinical research. Our microarray test platform provides a full range of microarray-based tiRNA and tRF analysis services to help our global customers conduct relevant research and reduce research costs. With our time-tested capabilities and regulatory expertise, we are confident to provide quality services in related testing services to escort your research.

About tRNA-derived tiRNA and tRF

tRNA is also the main source of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) with different functions. These tRNA-derived ncRNAs are not random degradation products but are generated through a precise biogenesis process. The ncRNA derived from tRNA can be roughly divided into two categories: tiRNA (half of tRNA) and tRF (fragment of tRNA). They each have characteristic size, nucleotide composition, function, and biogenesis. By specifically cutting the anticodon loop of mature tRNA under different stress conditions, 5'-tRNA and 3'-tRNA half of 29-50 nucleotides are produced, each of which can become a type of tiRNA. And tRF is a 16-28 nt fragment derived from tRNA or pre-tRNA, classified according to its origin site: (i) tRF-5 derived from the 5'part of mature tRNA by cutting in the D loop. (Ii) tRF-3 derived from the 3'part of the mature tRNA by cleavage at the T loop. The 3'end contains the 3'-CCA end. (Iii) tRF-1 is derived from the 3'tail of pre-tRNA. The 3'end has a poly-U residue at the end. (Iv) i-tRF not belonging to tRF-5, tRF-3 or tRF-1 usually comes from the internal region of mature tRNA. More and more studies have shown that tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the regulation of expression in tumors.

Biogenesis and classification tsRNAs(tiRNA (red) and tRF (blue)).
Fig 1. Biogenesis and classification tsRNAs(tiRNA (red) and tRF (blue)). (Avcilar-Kucukgoze I, et al. 2020)

Service Process

The tRF and tiRNA formed by the precise splicing of tRNA or pre-tRNA are difficult to distinguish between them by conventional PCR due to their overlapping sequences. We extend the length of tRF and tiRNA by adding sequences at the 3'and 5'ends, respectively. In order to distinguish tRF and tiRNA from precursors and other small RNAs, the forward and reverse primers are paired with the sequences at the 5'and 3'linkers so that the expression of tRF and tiRNA can be detected reliably and accurately. We use a unique probe design to provide microarray products for the detection of tRF and tiRNA, and the detectable sequence can refer to the currently published related databases and literature. In addition, we also provide microarray printing services, you can upload the sequence, and we will help you complete the follow-up work. Our service process includes microarray design, probe synthesis, microarray printing, sample RNA extraction, quality inspection, microarray detection, and data analysis.

The tiRNA and tRF analysis service

Our Features

  • Unique probe design and synthesis
  • Reliable and fast detection process, short cycle.

CD Genomics provides microarray products and testing services for tiRNA and tRF research. We have a large and well-equipped team of scientists who are committed to cooperating with researchers from all over the world to meet customer requirements. Customers can directly contact our employees and provide timely feedback on their inquiries. If you are interested in our one-stop solution service, please contact us for more detailed information.


  1. Avcilar-Kucukgoze I, Kashina A. Hijacking tRNAs from translation: Regulatory functions of tRNAs in mammalian cell physiology[J]. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 2020, 7.
  2. Kumar P, Mudunuri S B, Anaya J, et al. tRFdb: a database for transfer RNA fragments[J]. Nucleic acids research, 2015, 43(D1): D141-D145.
  3. Li N, Shan N, Lu L, et al. tRFtarget: a database for transfer RNA-derived fragment targets[J]. Nucleic Acids Research, 2021, 49(D1): D254-D260.
  4. Xiao Q, Gao P, Huang X, et al. tRFTars: predicting the targets of tRNA-derived fragments[J]. Journal of translational medicine, 2021, 19(1): 1-15.
Our products and services are for research purposes ONLY. We do not perform any private testing services that are not for laboratory use.

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