tRF & tiRNA Microarray

CD Genomics is a leading global company who can provide the best solution for worldwide customers in the field of RNA microarray. We have successfully accomplished many projects in miRNA profiling, lncRNA, tRNA, tRF&tiRNA, snoRNA, mRNA and circRNA microarrays. We guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

tRF & tiRNA are derivative fragments of tRNAs that belong to a short family of non-coding RNAs. They participate in complex biological reactions through transcription, translation and signaling pathways. tiRNAs are 5'- and 3'-tRNA semi-molecules produced by angiogenin-specific cleavage at the anticodon ring of mature tRNA under various stress conditions. The length of tiRNA is about 29-50nt. The length of tRF is about 16-28nt, which originates from mature tRNA or precursor tRNA. According to their corresponding location on tRNA, tRFs can be further divided into: tRF-5, corresponding to the 5'end of mature tRNA, which is cut in D-loop; tRF-3, corresponding to the 3'end of mature tRNA, which contains CCA, which is cut in T-loop; tRF-1, which is derived from the 3' tail sequence of precursor tRNA, which containing poly-U sequences; i-tRF, which does not belong to tRF-5, tRF-3 or tRF-1, mainly comes from the intermediate region of mature tRNA. As sncRNAs, tRFs and tiRNAs perform various biological functions: they can act as RNA interference like miRNAs; replace the translation initiation factor eIF4G which binds to mRNA and directly inhibit the protein translation process; bind some protein factors, such as YBX1, to affect the stability of mRNA; interact with cytochrome C to regulate apoptosis; promote assembly of Stress Granules (SGs) under stress conditions; activate p53 for p53-dependent cell death; alter the transcriptional cascade process of offspring as paternal genetic factors. The composition and content of tRFs & tiRNAs are highly dependent on cell subtypes and closely related to various pathological conditions. They are ubiquitous in biological fluids and are far more relative to microRNA, making them promising molecular markers. tRFs and tiRNAs are highly expressed in breast cancer and prostate cancer. Their characteristic expression in tumors can make them valuable markers for the diagnosis of tumors and can be used to guide clinical treatment.

tRF & tiRNA are formed by precise splicing of tRNA or pre-tRNA. Because of their overlapping sequences, it is difficult to distinguish tRF & tiRNA from tRNA or pre-tRNA by conventional qPCR. Also, because the length of tRF & tiRNA is only 16-50nt, it is too short to be used to detect tRF & tiRNA directly by qPCR. CD Genomics extends the length of tRF & tiRNA by adding sequences at the 3'and 5' ends respectively. In order to distinguish tRF & tiRNA from the precursors and other small RNAs, the forward and reverse primers are paired with the sequences at 5'and 3' junctions, so that the expression of tRF & tiRNA can be detected reliably and accurately. We refer to database1 and the latest literature when designing tRF & tiRNA microarrays.

RNA sample requirements

  • Purity: OD 260/280 should be 1.9 ~ 2.2 and DNA should be clearly removed;
  • Integrity: RNA integrity number (RIN) (≥7) and 28S/18S (≥0.7);
  • Concentration: no less than 100ng/µl;
  • Amount: no less than 2µg;
  • Preservation and transportation: RNA is stored in freezing tubes and transported with dry ice or liquid nitrogen.

CD Genomics offers high-quality services in RNA Microarray. With well-equipped instruments and experienced scientist team, we are dedicated to collaborating with our clients around the world to meet your specific requirements. We have comprehensive capacity and capabilities to provide a broad and integrated portfolio of laboratory and manufacturing services. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.


  1. 1. Kumar, P., et al. (2015). "tRFdb: a database for transfer RNA fragments." Nucleic acids research, 43, D141-145.
  2. Zheng, LL, et al. (2016). "tRF2Cancer: A web server to detect tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) and their expression in multiple cancers." Nucleic acids research, gkw414.
Our products and services are for research purposes ONLY. We do not perform any private testing services that are not for laboratory use.
Cat# Product Name Inquiry Basket
+ CDMR-50 Human tRF&tiRNA Microarray Online Inquiry
Description: 384-well (2*192) / plate
+ CDMR-51 Mouse tRF Microarray Online Inquiry
Description: 384-well (4*96) / plate
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